2010-10-09 18:33:54

The Zonal Astrograph, one of three of the same type instruments, was made by Carl Zeiss company in 1925 for reobservations of the Astronomical Society's Catalogues (AGK). In 1929-1931, a zone near the celestial pole with declination between +70º and +90º was photographed in Pulkovo Observatory; and S. Belyavsky compiled the catalogue of 11322 stars. Before the Second World War, the Zonal Astrograph was used in Simeiz Observatory; and it was hardly damaged during the war. Virtually, only optics and some mechanical parts were not damaged. In December 1960, the Zonal Astrograph was delivered in Mykolayiv after restoration in opto-mechanical plants of St Petersburg. Main features of the telescope are the following: D=160 mm, F=2.04 m, FOV= 5ºx 5º. The effective diameter of the objective was diaphragmed to 120 mm under manufacture. Given features allowed us to determine positions of celestial objects brighter than 12m.

Main Observational Campaigns of Photographic Astrometry

Determination of high-accuracy positions of the solar system bodies:
Regular observations of the solar system bodies with the Zonal Astrograph in Nikolaev were carried out in 1961-1998 years to determine their high-accuracy positions. The following number of positions were obtained during this period of time:

  • the major planets, except Mercury and Pluto - 2073
  • Galilean satellites of Jupiter - 1314
  • bright satellites of Saturn - 604
  • selected minor planets - 2450
  • comets about – 200

All observations, except positions of Jupiter, Saturn, and comets, were reduced in the system of ICRS by using positions of reference stars from Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues and proper motions from ACTRC catalogue.

Creation of Stellar Catalogues for Special Purposes


Title of catalogue

Mean Epoch




The polar zone between +68° and +90°


S.Belyavsky's catalogue of 11322 stars

196 plates for AGK2


The polar zone between +70° and +90°



277 plates were photographed


Mihailov's list of stars


104 plates were measured

201 plates were photographed


The Zodiac zone, ±10o near ecliptic



1134 plates with double overlapping were photographed to obtain the catalogue of 180 000 stars of up to 12m


ROAS programme


70 plates with the brightest radio sources were measured

210 plates were photographed,
they contain 131 fields with radio sources


The equatorial zone, ( ±4° in declination )



485 plates were photographed. They amount to 87% of the necessary number of plates for fourfold overlapping of this zone.


The Multi-Channel Telescope


Optical features

CCD camera

Limited magnitude

Observational campaigns

Main telescope

D=120mm, F=2044mm

ISD017P, 1040x1160, 16x16 mkm, FOV=28' x 31'

15 m

NEO, selected MP, bright ERS, GSS

Guide tube

D=115mm, F=2000mm

1/2" B/W CCTV Camera

8 m

Photometrical observations of satellites of the major planets

Satellite camera

D=50mm, F=200mm

1/3" Solid-state CCTV (color)

7 m

Earth artificial satellites

The CCD camera is able to operate in a stare mode with exposition time of 1 ms and any longer; and in a drift-scan mode as well.
Quartz synchronizer of the Time Service is used for all observational campaigns. Error of the time measurements is not more than 0.5 ms

The Observational Campaigns Carried out
with the Multi-Channel Telescope:

1) Observations of selected minor planets are carried out to improve their orbit elements and to determine masses of asteroids which pertubate their orbit elements. Observations of near Earth objects are carried out as well.
2) Photometric observations of the minor planets and satellites of the major planets.
3) Observations of artificial objects with altitudes of (400 - 34 000) km are carried out to improve their coordinates and photometrical parameters.
4) Observations of bright extra-galactic radio sources up to 15m are carried out as well.


Trillions have died in the Earth's seas. Trillions have died in the Earth's seas.

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