МАО
Науково-дослідний інститут
Миколаївська астрономічна обсерваторія


Міністерство освіти і науки
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2010-11-29 18:13:45

Description of design

AMC design consists of a horizontal rotating telescope in the prime vertical and a motionless long-focal length autocollimator (Pic.1). CCD camera is installed in the telescope focal plane to measure the exact moment of the star passage through the meridian plane. An optical-mechanical system (OMS) of the AMC is installed on two beds inside an enclosure. A telescope, a central optical unit, reading microscopes and an objective of autocollimator are installed on western bed.
The central optical unit, which consists of reflecting prism and glass limb, is attached to the telescope tube (Pic.2). The reflecting prism has two flat mirrors with 45° between them. Diagonal flat mirror reflects luminous flux from celestial bodies into the objective of telescope. Another flat mirror is installed perpendicularly to the rotation axis with accuracy of ±20", providing a reflection of luminous flux from artificial marks back into the objective of autocollimator. A part of this luminous flux passes into the telescope through a small hole in the center of the reflecting prism. Positions of the marks are measured in the telescope focal plane. It allows us to determine accurate positions of celestial bodies taking into consideration instrumental parameters.
Systematic instrumental errors are from ±0."02 to ±0."03
A roof of enclosure above the central optical unit has a sliding slit, which allows us to carry out observations in the meridian plane.
A focal OMS of the autocollimator, which provides a formation of direct and reflected marks as well as measurements of their coordinates, is installed in the focal plane (Pic.3). This OMS is installed on the eastern bed. An autocollimator tube, laying between two beds, provides a passage of light with minimal influence of air turbulence on the image quality of marks. Coordinates of marks are measured with CCD camera working in TV mode.
There are two rooms for the control system, which allows us to carry out observations in manual or automatic mode (Pic.4). Integrated software provides a preparation of input data for observations, raw data processing, determination of object coordinates, statistical calculations, storage of data.

Parameters of systems and units

 - horizontal telescope in the prime vertical: D= 180 mm, F= 2480 mm;

- motionless long-focal length autocollimator: D= 180 mm, F= 12360 mm;

- reflecting prism having 45° between two flat mirrows;

- divided circle made of glass К8, division 2', scale 1"/mkm;

- telescope CCD camera S1C (1040x1160, pixel size 16x16 mkm, FoV 24'х28');

- autocollimator CCD camera in TV mode;

- robotic measuring system with four reading microscopes and CCD cameras in TV mode;

- telescope setting system: step -4", maximal angular speed -150 °/minute;

 

- automatic meteo station with measuring accuracy of: temperature ±0.5°С, pressure ±1 mmHg, humidity ±2%

Scientific Projects

Modern mission of ground-based meridian astrometry is maintenance and extension of the ISRF/HIPPARCOS reference system to fainter objects. Observational campaigns with the Axial Meridian Circle (AMC) were aimed on solution of these problems. Implementation of scientific projects became possible thanks to the usage of such high-sensitive light detectors as CCD, which allowed us to carry out massive observations of stars and other celestial objects at modern level of accuracy. In 2002-2005, the AMC was equipped with CCD camera made in the RI MAO on the basis of ISD017P chip made by Electron-Optronik, St Petersburg. In 2007, CCD camera S1C was installed at the AMC after reconstruction of enclosure.
In 1996-1998, regular observations of stars in fields around 188 extragalactic radio sources (ERS) were carried out to improve stellar positions. These observations in robotic mode using CCD cameras of telescope and autocollimator, photoelectric system for reading circle, setting system, control computer were the first ones in Ukraine. As the result, a catalogue of positions for 15000 of stars was compiled. The catalogue contains stars of 12 to 15 magnitude at epoch of J2000. Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues were used as input ones. USNO-A2.0 catalogue was used for recognition of stars.

In 2002, observations of stars in narrow equatorial zone from -7.5o to 7o were carried out with the AMC to obtain positions of stars 10-15 magnitude and to compile a reference catalogue for reduction of geostationary satellite observations. As the result, a catalogue of positions for 11563 stars was compiled at right ascension zone of 17h-21h. Accuracies of positions are 105 mas and 115 mas in right ascension (RA) and declination (Dec) correspondingly.

In 2003-2005, observations of stars in fields around ERS were carried out in ecliptical zone. As the result, a catalogue of positions for stars in 15 calibrated fields around the ERS was compiled. The fields are uniformly placed in RA


- Distribution of calibrated fields on celestial sphere.
 

- Standard deviation vs stellar magnitude.


Accuracies of catalogue positions are 72 mas and 91 mas in RA and Dec correspondingly.
In 2008-2009, observations in ecliptical zone were continued. The zone was extended to 53 fields each with angular sizes of 7.5o х 1o. The fields are uniformly placed in declination zone of ±10o from ecliptic plane. Fields containing stars with large proper motions were also observed (Pic.2). As the result, a catalogue of positions and proper motions for 140189 stars in the system of UCAC2 catalogue was obtained. Internal accuracy of catalogue positions are 40 mas to 125 mas for stars of 9.5 to 15 magnitude. Differences with TYCHO2 catalogue are 120 mas for positions and 7-8 mas/year for proper motions.

- Distribution of objects on celestial sphere.
 


- Standard deviation vs stellar magnitude.

We also carried out research of stars with large proper motions. Data about positions and proper motions (PM) were obtained for 1334 stars having PM more than 40 mas/year and for 105 stars having PM more than 150 mas/year. A compiled catalogue of positions and PM for stars around the ERS was created using data obtained with the AMC. This project is carried out within the frames of international cooperation between astronomers from Russia (Pulkovo, RAS), Romania and Ukraine.

Patents and Publications

   1. Пат. 35905 А, 6 G06F9/00, 19/00, G01B9/06, 11/26. Меридіанний круг з системою автоматизованого управління та обробки даних / Г. І. Пінігін, О. В. Шульга. Опубл. 16.04.2001 Бюл. №3.
   2. Пат. 35904 А, 6 H01L31/052, H01J47/26. Світлоприймальний пристрій / О. М. Ковальчук, О. В. Шульга. Опубл. 16.04.2001 Бюл. №3.
   3. А. с. ПА №1863 від 29.03.99 р. Система програмного керування для автоматичного меридіанного інструменту / Ю. І. Процюк.
   4. А. с. № 9444 від 23.02.2004. Пакет програм управління ПЗЗ камерою / О. М. Ковальчук.
   5. А. с. № 13030 від 12.05.05. Пакет комп'ютерних програм "Пакет універсальний мультипрограмний астрометричний" ("П.У.М.А.") / Ю. І. Процюк.
   6. Ю. І. Процюк. Теоретичні та методичні основи спостережень та їх обробки на автоматичному меридіанному телескопі горизонтального типу. // Автореферат дисертації на здобуття вченого ступеня кандидата фізіко-математичних наук, Київ, 2000, - 21 с. - укp.
   7. Шульга О.В. Визначення положень небесних об'єктів до 15m із спостережень на аксіальному меридіанному крузі Миколаївської астрономічної обсерваторії. // Автореферат дисертації на здобуття вченого ступеня кандидата фізіко-математичних наук, Київ, 2001. - 28 с. - укp.
   8. Майгурова Н.В. Уточнення зв'язку радіо та оптичної систем координат за ПЗЗ-спостереженнями вибраних позагалактичних радіоджерел в оптичному діапазоні. // Автореферат дисертації на здобуття вченого ступеня кандидата фізіко-математичних наук, Київ, 2006, - 22 с. - укp.
   9. Автоматические телескопы наземной астрометрии: учебное пособие / Под ред. Г. И. Пинигина. - Николаев: Атолл, 1997. - 80 с.
  10. Николаевская астрономическая обсерватория. Звездный путь длиною в 175 лет / Под ред. Г.И. Пинигина. - Николаев: Атолл, 1998, С. 190-201.
  11. Пинигин Г.И. Телескопы наземной оптической астрономии. - Николаев: Атолл, 2000, С. 60-71.
  12. Пинигин Г. И. Меридиан астронома: Пулково - Николаев.- Николаев: Атолл, 2003, С. 36-44.
  13. Практикум по астрономии : Учебное пособие / Под ред. Г. И. Пинигина. - Николаев: Атолл, 2005, С. 76-86.
  14. Pinigin G., Shulga A., Mazhaev A., Petrov A. On the current state of the Mykolayiv Axial Meridian Circle (AMC). // Информационный бюллетень УАА. - 1993. - № 4. - С. 60-61.
  15. Пинигин Г. И., Шульга А. В.,Федоров П. Н., Петров А. Г. Результаты исследования аксиального меридианного круга (АМК) // Кинематика и физика небесных тел.- 1994.- 10, № 1.- С. 54-57.
  16. G.I.Pinigin, A.V.Shulga, P.N.Fedorov, A.N. Kovalchuk, Improvement of star positions with new Axial Meridian Circle with negligible systematic errors //Astronomical and Astrophysical Objectives of Sub-Milliarcsecond Optical Astronomy. - IAU Symp.№166. -1995. - P.365
  17. Pinigin G. I, Shulga A. V., Fedorov P. N., Kovalchuk A. N., Mаzhaev A. E., Petrov A. G. Axial meridian circle of the Nikolaev astronomical observatory // Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions. - 1995. - 8, № 2. - P.161-163.
  18. Ковальчук А. Н., Пинигин Г. И., Процюк Ю. И., Шульга А. В. Результаты первых наблюдений на Hиколаевском АMК с ПЗС микрометром // Інформаційний Бюлетень УАА. - K.: 1995. - № 7. - С. 76.
  19. Ковальчук А. Н., Федоров П. Н., Шульга А. В. Звездный ПЗС микрометр Николаевского АМК // Інформаційний Бюлетень УАА. - К.: 1995. - № 7. - С. 76-77.
  20. Pinigin G. I., Li Zhigang, Zhu Zi. A new role of CCD meridian circles in modern astrometry // Astronomy and Astrophysical Transactions. - 1996. - 13, № 1. - P. 83-91.
  21. A.N. Kovalchuk, G.I. Pinigin, Yu.I. Protsyuk, A.V.S hulga. First steps to re-observation of the HIPPARCOS/TYCHO stars with ground-based automatic AMC// Proc.of the ESA Symposium "Hipparcos VeniceW. - Venice (Italy). - ESA SP-402.-1997.- P. 139-141.
  22. A.N. Kovalchuk, G.I. Pinigin, Yu.I. Protsyuk, A.V. Shulga. Position determination of 12-14 magnitudes stars in the selected fields around extragalactic radio sources with the automatic AMC. // In: Journees 1997 Systemes de Reference Spatio-Temporels.- Prague, -1997. -P.14-17.
  23. Kovalchuk A. N., Protsyuk Yu. I., Shulga A. V. CCD micrometer of the Mikolayiv axil meridian circle // Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions.- 1997. - 13, № 1. - P. 23-28.
  24. Kovalchuk A., Pinigin G.I., Protsyuk Yu., Shulga A. Mykolaiv AMK: current results of observations and investigations // Інформаційний бюллетень УАА. - 1998. - № 12. - С. 50.
  25. Ковальчук А. Н., Пинигин Г. И., Процюк Ю. И., Шульга А. В., Гумеров Р. И. Использование Николаевского АМК в согласованных наблюдениях на параллактической монтировке // Кінематика та фізика небесних тіл, додаток. - 1999. - № 1.- С. 79-83.
  26. Процюк Ю. І. Програмний комплекс автоматичного мерідіаного круга для визначення положень небесних светил // Кінематика та фізика небесних тіл, додаток. - 1999. - № 1.- С. 93-96.
  27. Ковальчук О. М. Універсальний ПЗЗ-мікрометр в астрономії // Кінематика та фізика небесних тіл, додаток. - 1999. - № 1.- С.97-100.
  28. Pinigin G. I., Shulga A. V.,Kovalchyk A. N., Protsyuk Yu. I. et al. Scientific and Technical Collaboration betwenn Russian and Ukrainian author Collectives on the Development of astronomical Instruments equipped with the advanced detection Devices // Astrophysical & Astronomical Transactions. - 2003. - 22, № .4-5. - P. 777-786.
  29. BabenkoYu., Danil'tsev O., Vertypolokh O., Kovalchuk A., Protsyuk Yu., Pinigin G., Shulga A., et al. Reduction of compiled catalogue in the selected Extragalactic radio source fields // Romanian Astronomical Journal. - 2003. - 13, № 1. - P. 77-81.
  30. N.Maigurova. CCD observations of fields around ecliptic in drift scan mode // Abstract Book of "Enlargement of Collaboration in Ground-Based Astronomical Research in SEE Countries. Studies of the Near-Earth and Small Bodies of the Solar System" / Nikolaev, September 25-28 2006. - Nikolaev: Atoll, 2006. - P. 73-74.
  31. V.Ryl'kov, N.Narizhnaya, A. Dement'eva, Maigurova N., Pinigin G.I., Yr.Protsyuk, Bosca, Popescu Catalogue of Reference Stars for Observation of Extragalactic Radio Sources of the Northen Sky // Abstract Book of the IAU XXVIth General Assembly - 2006 - JD-44.
  32. Ryl'kov V., Dement'eva A ., Narizhnaya N ., Pinigin G. etc Reference Stars Compiled Catalogue around Extragalactic Radio Sources // Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies. Suppl. - 2005. - № 5. - P. 328-332.
  33. Rylkov V., Maigurova N., Pinigin G . etc. Compiled Catalogue of Reference Stars around 43 Extragalactic Radio Sources // Romanian Astronomical Journal Suppl. - 2005. - 15. - P. 131-136.
  34. N. Maigurova, Aleksandrov A., Kirpa V., Pinigin G., Protsyuk Y., Shulga A. CCD drift scan observation on Nikolaev AMC // Programme and Book of Abstracts "Astronomy and Space Physics at Kyiv University" / Kyiv, May 22-26 2005. - P. 50.
  35. Ryl'kov V., Narizhnaja N., Dement'eva A., Maigurova N., Pinigin G., Protsyuk, Y. A compiled catalogue of reference stars around the selected ERS in the northern sky // A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium. - V. 248. - 2008. - p. 122-123 .
  36. Maigurova Nadezhda; Pinigin Gennady. Results of CCD Observations of Ecliptic Zone in Nikolaev Observatory. Exploring the solar system and the universe // AIP Conference Proceedings - V. 1043 - 2008. - P. 183-186.

Photo Gallery

Photos of 2005-2009 years
Photos of 1990-2005 years
Photos of 1980-1990 years

Contacts

Address: Observatornaya 1, Nikolaev, 54030, Ukraine

Phone: + 380 (512) 477014
Fax: +380 (512) 477014

Prof. Gennadiy I. Pinigin, Chief Designer:

Olexander V. Shulga, designer, PhD:

Olexander N. Kovalchuk, hardware:

Yuri I. Protsyuk, software, PhD:

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